In February the project held its first physical workshop, supported by funding from INQUA, a Connexion Grant from the Canadian Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council and Universite de Montreal.
Between February 11-13th Canada welcomed a contingent of international researchers with beautiful but increasingly glacial weather (reaching -28 C at one point, -35 with windchill!), and for those discovering the city for the first time, it was a great experience.
Thanks to INQUA funding, we were able to fund presentations by two PhD students as well as a large number of Early Career Researchers; in total 40% of speakers were women. In addition, the workshop was also attended by U. de Montreal students.
The first day consisted of 12 presentations, following an introduction to the project. Papers covered a wide range of topics (see image above), showing the fascinating diversity in current approaches to understanding prehistoric mobility; some of which are described here.
Erick Robinson spoke about INQUA Project 1404, which among many activities includes links to research aimed at modelling cultural responses to palaeoenvironmental change, and gave interesting information about the structure of their project database. This includes building ‘palaeoscapes’ to understand species distributions over time.
Dario Guiducci brought in aspects of mobility concerned with way-finding, dispersals and how people read landscapes, and discussed modelling the structure of landscapes in comparison to archaeological site locations. In the case study region of Aurignacian Cantabria, there seems to be a favouring of sites within highly ‘legible’ environs.
The potential of carnivores as models for mobility was presented by Elinor Croxall, by comparing home ranges and ecology, in combination with the ethology of predators themselves. While Elinor’s research focuses on Neanderthals, this clearly has relevance more widely.
In a similar vein, Alex Pryor discussed new approaches to mid-Upper Palaeolithic mobility through examining evidence for plant use. In particular the importance of wood for fuel availability was stressed, and ways to identify the use of food storage in the record, both of which having impacts on levels of mobility.
The key role of stable isotope studies to analysis of mobility was underlined by Kate Britton, who gave a talk detailing current methodologies, as well as potential pitfalls in terms of not assuming uniformitarianist principles were in action. Similarly Suzanne Pilaar Birch’s presentation discussed case studies of isotopic studies, and highlighted the potential for examining mobility of one particular species, the red deer.
The isotopic thread continued with Jaime Hodgkins’ research, combining ecology with a novel material, ostrich eggshell, to examine changes in the distances MSA foragers at Pinnacle Point travelled to source this high-energy food. She also mentioned current work in examining ecological variables in the context of Neanderthal and early modern human occupations in Italy, which included a stunning video combining drone footage of the area with scanned visuals of the cave interior.
Multi-proxy angles for examining mobility were the focus of William Rendu’s talk, covering developments in models combining faunal and lithic data, to examine hunting patterns across different technological traditions. Focus on hunting also formed the subject of research on local environment exploitation at Amud Cave, Israel, presented by Gideon Hartman, in combination with consideration of social and demographic contexts.
An example of combining differenct approaches to one material was found in Telmo Pereira’s talk, which applied geology and ecology, focusing on studying lithic raw materials to understand the relationship between stone sources and archaeological sites. This includes sampling the wider landscape rather than simply outcrops, and comparing the material properties of rocks themselves to understand why people favoured them.
Two final papers addressed other aspects of lithic analysis in relation to mobility. Julien Riel-Salvatore presented on the theory and method of “whole assemblage behavioural indicator” lithic studies, and how palaeoecology can further refine this, while Miquel Roy Sunyer discussed long-term research that examines Neanderthal lithic sourcing and territories on a whole-landscape scale in North East Spain.
Following the presentations during the generous time allotted for questions and discussion, many interesting points were raised. The contributions of the discussants were especially valuable at this point, raising the issue of the multi-scalar patterning of mobility, as well as the concept itself being multi-dimensional. Ariane highlighted the space in the project to include more information from palaeoecology and palaeobotany, in particular recent advances around spatial ecology, as well as considering in more detail work like Dario’s on human landscape perception and its enabling of mobility. Adrian spoke about the importance of considering mobility as an adaptive response, and how this might give useful diachronic and synchronic perspectives.
Although technical issues made webcasting the workshop impossible, we were able to share the event via live-tweeting by several of the participants.
— Kate Britton (@WhatKatieDigs) February 12, 2016
Jamie Hodgkins up now talking about her work at Pinnacle Point, using zooarch & isotopes to look at mobility. Beautiful stratigraphy! #RPGHM
— Suzanne Pilaar Birch (@suzie_birch) February 12, 2016
The second day of the workshop was a full morning’s roundtable, aimed at discussing the project direction and practicalities. Many participants raised further questions regarding the previous day’s presentations, and there was significant attention paid to how the project can provide a useful resource.
Discussion included the following areas:
- the role of seasonality- identification, proxies, and impact; for example resources (lithic, plant or animal) that were only available at limited times of the year
- comparing lithic and subsistence catchments via resource mapping
- the importance of better integration of anthropological/ethnographic data to underpin archaeological models, e.g. expectations for social aggregation into systems of mobility, other ‘non-rational’ reasons for moving
- comparisons between North America and Europe- why lithic transport distances are so different
- focusing on Neanderthal mobility adaptations: general variability, and case study of their forest adaptations
- wider comparative study examining hunter-gatherer resilience to climate and environmental shifts, managed via new mobility
- methodological questions for the project, including database structure (using the Stage 3 Project as a partial model), and how to synthesize data from different literatures, at both the site level, and inter-site/larger scale, e.g. genetics data
Promising publication plans agreed by participants include a multi-authored position paper outlining why mobility is important, and its relevance to wider questions, as well as how we can access it within the archaeological record. Following this, rough plans for topic-specific papers authored/co-authored by project participants were also discussed. Progress on publications will be communicated, with an aim for the first ‘position paper’ to be started within the next few months.
We would like to thank in particular the funders, as well as the Departement d’Anthropologie for hosting our event, and Professor Ariane Burke and Dr Adrian Burke for their extremely useful role as discussants over the two days.